J. Falnes: Merknader 2003 til rapporten

"BØLGJEENERGIFORSKINGA VED NTH. HISTORISK OVERSYN 1973-85."

J. Falnes: Comments 2003 to to a report on

"THE WAVE POWER RESEARCH AT THE NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (NTH). HISTORICAL REVIEW 1973-85."

which was written in Norwegian, June 1985, by

Kjell Budal and Johannes Falnes

[Norsk tekst nedanfor, etter samandrag og kommentarar på engelsk

Norwegian text below, after summary and comments in English.]

Contents of the report.

Subject

Page

Introduction and summary

1

The first years (1973-78)

3

Design/assessment and experimental work 1978-83

7

Teaching and additional research

9

Appendix A. Governmental funding

11

Appendix B. List of reports [not all open]

12

Appendix C. Theses for the degrees "siv.ing." and "dr.ing."

16

Appendix D. List of scientific publications

17

Summary of the report:

At the Division of Experimental Physics, Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), which was part of the University of Trondheim (1968-1995) work on ocean-wave energy was initiated by Kjell Budal during the oil crisis in 1973. After four years, during which

(a) general theories for wave-energy extraction were developed, and

(b) proposals of several different devices for energy conversion were put forward,

substantial financial support was provided, during 1978-1983, by OED (the Norwegian Ministry for Petroleum and Energy) for model testing, design work and assessment of some of the proposals. The support given during these six years amounts to nearly NOK.13 million. The goal was to utilise waves for regional and national energy supply. After 1983, due to lack of further external funding, the goal was shifted more towards mini-power devices (1 - 100 W) for navigation lights and offshore measuring equipment. A technical report issued in March 1974 cf. report R1 (listed in Appendix B) served as basis for a contract with the company Kværner Brug A/S, for a patent application, and for two journal papers 1975 cf. publications 1 & 2 (listed in Appendix D). The research group's continuous co-operation with Kværner Brug lasted until 1983. Substantial research work, development work and assessment were carried out on three different proposed versions ("type E", "type M2" and "type N2") of a phase-controlled point-absorber wave-power converter. Much of this work was carried out on contract by various research and consulting organisations ( SINTEF, NSFI, OTTER, EFI, etc.). This wave-power converter was one of three different wave-power plants discussed in a White Paper [Om nye fornybare energikilder i Norge (On new renewable energy sources in Norway), Stortingsmelding nr. 65 (1981-82), The Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Oslo, 1982]. As part of the wave-energy research in Trondheim, four persons completed their doctorate study, Lars Christian Iversen in 1980, Åge Kyllingstad in 1982, Oddbjørn Malmo in 1984 and Geirmund Oltedal in 1985. Moreover, until the report was authored in 1985, 17 students had completed their "sivilingeniør" degree with thesis work related to wave-power research.

Comments 2003 by J. Falnes:

In September 1984, a few weeks after construction work started on Kværner Brug's wave-power converter, the company Kværner Brug A/S issued the report KVÆRNERs bølgekraftverk av typen svingende vannsøyle: Fra idé til prototyp ("KVÆRNER's wave-power converter of the type oscillating water column: From idea to prototype"), authored by N. Ambli. The report. which contains more than 20 pages of text besides 22 full-page figures, is a historical review of the research and development that started at Kværner Brug in 1975. The very skilled mechanical designer, "sivilingenør" (M.Eng.) Nils Ambli (1933-1999), was the project leader for Kværner's wave-energy project from 1975 to 1983, when "sivilingenør" Knut Bønke was given the responsibility to conduct the activity of constructing the prototype, that was officially inaugurated at Toftestallen, island Toftøy, Øygarden, Hordaland, Norway, on 13 November 1985 by Kåre Kristiansen, Cabinet Minister of the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (OED). A unit of the TAPCHAN wave-power plant was simultaneously inaugurated at Toftestallen.

As we were given a copy of Ambli's historical review report, this inspired us, Kjell Budal (1933-1989) and me, to author a historical review on our work during the years 1973-85. Our report ( Bølgjeenergiforskinga ved NTH: Historisk oversyn 1973-85) was completed in June 1985. At this time, no external financial support was available for the wave-power research at NTH. For this reason, our efforts were directed towards more short-term technological development (utilisation of wave energy for e.g. navigation buoys). During a few years, we co-operated with the company Lysøysund Industrier A.S., that unfortunately became bankrupt in 1988.

The winter 1988-89 was not a good time for Norwegian wave-power development. During the last week of 1988, Kværner's wave-power prototype was severely damaged in extremely stormy weather. Since then the plant has not been in operation. For the wave-power group at NTH it was a severe loss when Kjell Budal passed away on 9 February 1989.

During the early 1990s we again experienced increased financing for wave-power research through the Norwegian research councils (NAVF and NTNF). 1995 was the last year during which the wave-power group at NTH received direct funding support from the Norwegian research council (NFR, division NT). However, through co-operation with the companies Brødrene Langset AS and ConWEC AS, support was provided indirectly through the research council (NFR, division IE) during the late 1990s. Two persons left the wave-power group after completing their doctorate study, Arne Brendmo in 1995 and Håvard Eidsmoen in 1996. After Per Magne Lillebekken had been a full-time employee during 17 years with the wave-power group, he was in 1998 appointed in another position at the Department of Physics, NTNU. For half a year, J. Falnes was alone in the wave group. Later, however, Jørgen Hals joined the group for nearly two years and Torkel Bjarte-Larsson for three years. The latter person's doctorate study is partly financed by the research council (NFR, division IE/NYTEK). [Note that from 1996, the name of the institution "University of Trondheim" which included NTH, has been changed to "Norwegian University of Science and Technology" (NTNU).]

Innhaldsliste for rapporten.

Emne

Side

Innleiing og samandrag

1

Dei fyrste åra (1973-78)

3

Prosjektering og eksperimentelt arbeid 1978-83

7

Undervisning og forsking elles

9

Vedlegg A. Tilskot frå statsbudsjettet

11

Vedlegg B. Liste over rapportar

12

Vedlegg C. Hovudoppgåver og dr.ing.-avhandlingar

16

Vedlegg D. Liste over vitskaplege artiklar

17

Akronym og andre forkortingar brukte i rapporten:

EFI = Elektrisitetsforsyningens Forskningsinstitutt (frå 1998 fusjonert inn i SINTEF)

IEA = International Energy Agency

JF = Johannes Falnes

KB = Kjell Budal

NHL = Norges Hydrodynamiske Laboratorier

NORDEL er ein samskipnad for nordisk samarbeid på området elektrisitetsforsyning.

NSFI = Norges Skipsforskningsinstitutt

NTH = Noregs tekniske høgskole [gjekk frå 1996 inn i NTNU]

NTNF =. Noregs teknisk-naturvitskaplege forskingsråd

NVE = Noregs vassdrags- og elektrisitetsvesen

OED = Olje- og energidepartementet

OTTER = Offshore Technology Testing and Research Group (tilknytt SINTEF, VHL og NSFI)

SINTEF = Selskapet [seinare: Stiftelsen] for industriell og teknisk forskning

VG = Verdens Gang

VHL = Vassdrags- og havnelaboratoriet (etter 1979 ein del av NHL)

Merknader 2003 ved J. Falnes:

I september 1984, nokre få veker etter at anleggsarbeidet starta på Toftestallen med Kværner Brug sitt bølgjekraftverk, gav Kværner Brug A/S ut rapporten KVÆRNERs bølgekraftverk av typen svingende vannsøyle: Fra idé til prototyp, forfatta av N. Ambli. Rapporten. som inneheld over 20 sider tekst omframt 22 heilsides figurar, gir eit historisk oversyn over det forskings- og utviklingsarbeidet som starta på Kværner Brug i 1975. Den særs dugande konstruktøren, sivilingenør Nils Ambli (1933-1999), var prosjektleiar for Kværners bølgjeenergiprosjekt frå 1975 til 1983, då sivilingeniør Knut Bønke tok over for å leia arbeidet med å byggja prototypen, som blei offisielt opna på Toftestallen, Toftøy, Øygarden, Hordaland, den 13. november 1985 av statsråd Kåre Kristiansen, OED.

Då vi fekk tilsendt kopi av Ambli sin ovannemnde historikkrapport, inspirerte dette oss, Kjell Budal (1933-1989) og meg, til å forfatta ein historikkrapport om vårt arbeid i perioden 1973-85. Vår rapport ( Bølgjeenergiforskinga ved NTH: Historisk oversyn 1973-85) var ferdigskriven i juni 1985. På denne tida hadde vi ikkje ekstern finansiell støtte til bølgjekraftforskinga ved NTH. Difor arbeidde vi då meir med kortsiktig utviklingsarbeid (utnytting av bølgjeenergi til navigasjonsbøyar o.l.). Vi samarbeidde i nokre år med Lysøysund Industrier A.S., som dessverre gjekk konkurs i 1988.

Vinteren 1988-89 var inga god tid for norsk utvikling av bølgjekraftverk. Siste veka av 1988 blei Kværner Brug A/S sin bølgjekraftprototyp sterkt skadd i ekstremt uver, og har seinare vore ute av drift. For bølgjegruppa ved NTH var det eit smerteleg tap då Kjell Budal døydde 9. februar 1989.

I fyrste halvdelen av 1990-åra opplevde vi litt stigning i den finansielle støtta til bølgjekraftforsking frå forskingsråda (NAVF og NTNF). 1995 var det siste året som bølgjekraftgruppa ved NTH fekk direkte støtte frå forskingsrådet (NFR, område NT). Men gjennom samarbeid med Brødrene Langset AS og ConWEC AS, fekk gruppa indirekte støtte frå forskingsrådet (NFR, område IE) i siste halvdelen av 1990-åra. To forskarar måtte forlata bølgjekraftgruppa etter å ha fullført dr.-ing.-studiet, Arne Brendmo i 1995 og Håvard Eidsmoen i 1996. Etter at Per Magne Lillebekken hadde vore heiltids tilsett i bølgjekraftgruppa i 17 år, fekk han i 1998 tilsetjing i ei anna stilling ved Institutt for fysikk, NTNU. I eit halvt år var då J. Falnes åleine i bølgjegruppa. Sidan var Jørgen Hals med i gruppa i nærmare to år og Torkel Bjarte-Larsson i tre år. I sitt dr.-ing.-studium er sistnemnde delvis finansiert av forskingsrådet (NFR, område IE/NYTEK). [Merk at frå 1996, endra universitetet namn. Det heiter no Noregs teknisk-naturvitskaplege universitet, NTNU. Etter 1995 er både "Universitetet i Trondheim" og "NTH" blitt historie.]

JF 2003-04-14